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Bridging the Gap: Storage & Distribution in the Hydrogen Value Chain, IDTechEx Report

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BOSTON, Aug. 15, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — In recent years, interest and activity in the hydrogen sector have accelerated, driven by governments recognizing hydrogen’s role in the energy transition and companies worldwide capitalizing on emerging market opportunities through the supply of services, products, technologies, and projects. While much focus has been placed on the upstream development of low-carbon hydrogen production sites (both green and blue) and downstream advancements in fuel cell technologies and industrial use cases of hydrogen, the midstream infrastructure needed to store and transport hydrogen has often received less consideration.

The development of this critical link in the value chain is vital for ensuring the full potential of hydrogen as an industrial feedstock, fuel, and energy carrier, bridging the gap between production and consumption. A broad spectrum of solutions exists for hydrogen transportation and storage.

This article delves into the subject of hydrogen storage and distribution technologies, examining their use cases and highlighting recent commercial activities in this domain. For a more in-depth exploration of each technology and associated commercial activities, please refer to IDTechEx’s new market report, “Hydrogen Economy 2023-2033: Production, Storage, Distribution & Applications“.

The Need for Hydrogen Storage & Distribution

Despite its impressive gravimetric energy density, one of the main challenges with hydrogen is the complexity of its storage and transportation. This stems from its extremely low density at ambient conditions leading to low volumetric energy density. Consequently, significant compression (100 to 700 bar) or liquefaction at an extreme boiling point of -253°C is necessary to enhance its volumetric energy density for storing and transporting adequate amounts.

Although mature, incumbent compressed gas and cryogenic liquid storage methods have significant disadvantages. These methods are energy-intensive, diminishing the hydrogen’s net energy content. Compression consumes 10-30% of the original energy, while liquefaction can use up to 30-40%, with the added burden of requiring a separate liquefaction plant, entailing considerable capital investment. Such inefficiencies significantly hinder some applications, such as FCEV mobility and energy storage, by sharply lowering the overall energy efficiency. Safety risks with compressed gas storage and boil-off issues with liquid H2 storage lead to hydrogen loss, further exacerbating the challenges. Collectively, these factors make both domestic and international transport of hydrogen expensive and inefficient.

Globally, hydrogen pipelines do exist, totaling an estimated 5,000 km, but their reach is largely restricted to specific regions like parts of Texas and Louisiana around the Gulf Coast or areas in France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany. Typically operated by industrial gas giants like Air Products, Linde, and Air Liquide, these pipelines serve industrial facilities such as refineries within a limited range of production sites. This confinement emphasizes the pressing need to expand pipeline networks to connect varying regions of production and consumption more widely.

Hydrogen Storage Options and Their Use Cases

Many solutions are available, but the optimal choice depends on storage size and application. Compressed gas and liquid hydrogen storage tanks will likely continue to serve stationary storage applications, such as hydrogen refueling stations. Liquid hydrogen spheres may be used to store large quantities at production sites and import/export terminals. Established players like Tenaris (compressed gas storage), Chart Industries (liquid H2 tanks), and McDermott CB&I (liquid H2 spherical vessels) already supply these well-commercialized solutions.

Compressed hydrogen tanks, especially Type III and IV composites are gaining traction in the FCEV market, as they are most suitable to store hydrogen on-board of a vehicle. Many FCEVs, such as the Hyundai Nexo and Toyota Mirai, use Type IV tanks storing hydrogen at 700 bar. Compressed storage is expected to persist in many FCEV segments, dominating light-duty ones. However, liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks present the advantage of higher capacities, which could be beneficial for the heavy-duty segments. Hence, some companies, like Daimler Truck, are trialing the use of LH2.

Storage systems using metal hydrides show promise for stationary applications similar to existing compressed and liquid H2 systems. These systems, which operate at much lower pressures (10-50 bar) and use pressure cycling for adsorption/release, may be more suitable for hydrogen energy storage applications due to reduced energy consumption and, thus, improved round-trip efficiency. Companies like GKN Hydrogen are progressing towards commercialization, having demonstrated their systems in off-grid energy storage and residential combined heat and power (CHP). Many more companies are developing systems based on metal hydrides.

Underground hydrogen storage, utilizing reservoirs like salt caverns, builds on established natural gas storage methods. Integration of such facilities into hydrogen pipeline networks is planned by operators like Uniper and Gasunie in the coming years. Underground storage is expected to play a key role in seasonal hydrogen storage to supply sectors in times of lower demand, like natural gas storage. Underground facilities may also be used by industrial projects as a buffer reserve of hydrogen – HYBRIT, a sustainable steelmaking project in Sweden, is testing such a concept using a lined rock cavern (LRC). However, regulation and long project development times remain key challenges for this storage type.

Hydrogen Distribution Options and Their Use Cases

Currently, compressed and liquid hydrogen trailers supply smaller scale applications like refueling stations or pilot projects. This trend is likely to continue as large-scale transportation where continuous hydrogen supplies are needed may not be viable with these methods. Many types of vessels could be used in terms of compressed gas transport, from Type I to IV, developed by companies like Hexagon Purus­. Other companies, such as LIFTE H2, are using trailer concepts to develop mobile refuelers, which can compensate for the lack of a hydrogen refueling station.

Larger scale and longer-distance transport will necessitate pipelines, either running directly from production to end-use sites or feeding into pipeline networks. New construction is planned, with some projects like the HyNet North West Hydrogen Pipeline already underway. Repurposing natural gas pipelines is a possibility but requires extensive simulation, testing, and risk evaluation to identify suitable pipelines. The European Hydrogen Backbone initiative is a leading initiative in terms of developing a large-scale pipeline network, with over 30 operators participating – many of the pipelines that will be used are planned to be repurposed from existing networks. Blending hydrogen into natural gas is also a popular topic as it is a way of partially decarbonizing the heating and power sector, with projects like HyDeploy proving a blend of 20 vol% being safe in existing pipelines. However, a higher percentage of hydrogen blends will require the modification of many appliances and equipment in the residential and industrial sectors.

International long-distance transport may involve liquid hydrogen or conversion to hydrogen carriers like ammonia or LOHC. Liquid hydrogen transport was demonstrated by the Suiso Frontier vessel (built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries) in the HESC project, transporting hydrogen from Australia to Japan. However, this pathway may be less viable compared to carriers due to the technical and commercial difficulties of dealing with liquid hydrogen.

The advantage of using hydrogen carriers is the utilization of existing transport routes and vessels, albeit requiring additional processing facilities. Companies like Chiyoda Corporation and Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies are on the path of commercializing their LOHC solutions. An ammonia receiving terminal is also planned at the Port of Rotterdam as a collaboration between Royal Vopak, Gasunie, and HES International. Many more companies globally are also seeing ammonia as the more viable option.

Future Directions & Further Insights

The global embrace of hydrogen storage and distribution technologies will expand as production and end-use sites increase. This represents an opportunity for product supply, project development, and R&D to innovate and refine existing methods. IDTechEx projects the global low-carbon hydrogen production market to reach US$130 billion by 2033, expecting substantial growth in transport and storage solutions. The new “Hydrogen Economy 2023-2033: Production, Storage, Distribution & Applications” report offers an exhaustive overview of the value chain, including technological analyses, comparisons, commercial activities, innovations, and market trends.

To find out more about this IDTechEx report, including downloadable sample pages, please visit www.IDTechEx.com/hydrogeneconomy.

About IDTechEx

IDTechEx guides your strategic business decisions through its Research, Subscription and Consultancy products, helping you profit from emerging technologies. For more information, contact [email protected] or visit www.IDTechEx.com.

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Media Contact:

Lucy Rogers
Sales and Marketing Administrator
[email protected]
+44(0)1223 812300

Social Media Links:

Twitter: www.twitter.com/IDTechEx
LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/company/IDTechEx 

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Blockchain Press Releases

Flash News: OKX Introduces Exclusive ‘Babylon Pioneer Pass Event’ in Collaboration with Babylon, Offering Free Pioneer Pass NFT Minting for the First 100,000 Users Who Stake on Babylon Testnet

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SINGAPORE, March 2, 2024 /PRNewswire/ — OKX, a leading Web3 technology company, has issued updates for March 2, 2024.

OKX Introduces Exclusive ‘Babylon Pioneer Pass Event’ in Collaboration with Babylon, Offering Free Pioneer Pass NFT Minting for the First 100,000 Users Who Stake on Babylon Testnet

OKX today announced the launch of its ‘Babylon Pioneer Pass Event,’ giving users who access the Babylon Testnet and stake any amount of Signet Bitcoin (sBTC) the opportunity to claim Babylon’s Bitcoin Pioneer Pass NFT. To qualify for a spot, users must access the Babylon Testnet and stake any amount of Signet Bitcoin (sBTC).

The event kicks off on February 28 and continues until March 6. Following the event, starting from March 7, participants who have been whitelisted will have the ability to mint their Bitcoin Pioneer Pass NFT using the OKX Wallet and their whitelisted address.

The process of participating in this event is straightforward and involves the following steps:

  1. Firstly, users will need to prepare by setting up their OKX and Keplr Wallets. These wallets will be crucial for interacting with the Babylon Testnet and the subsequent claiming of sBTC and BBN.
  2. Following the wallet setup, users can then claim the sBTC and BBN on Babylon’s Official Discord. These tokens will be needed for staking in the Babylon Testnet.
  3. Finally, users will need to access Babylon’s official website, where users can actively engage, stake their tokens and claim their whitelist spots.

Participation in the event offers a multitude of benefits. Users can engage actively with the Babylon Testnet, which in turn enhances their understanding of the Babylon protocol and its functionalities. Furthermore, participants contribute to the development and evolution of the Babylon protocol by being active users.

The ‘Babylon Pioneer Pass Event‘ is a result of OKX’s partnership with Babylon, a trustless Bitcoin staking protocol. The Bitcoin Pioneer Pass, Babylon’s first commemorative Non-Fungible Token (NFT), is a highlight of this event, representing a significant milestone for both OKX and Babylon.

For more information, please visit the OKX Support Center.

About OKX

A leading global technology company driving the future of Web3, OKX provides a comprehensive suite of products to meet the needs of beginners and experts alike, including:

  • OKX Wallet: The world’s most powerful, secure and versatile crypto wallet which gives users access to over 80 blockchains while allowing them to take custody of their own funds. The wallet includes MPC technology which allows users to easily recover access to their wallet independently, removing the need for traditional, ‘written down’ seed phrases. In addition, OKX Wallet’s account abstraction-powered Smart Account enables users to pay for transactions on multiple blockchains using USDC or USDT, and interact with multiple contracts via a single transaction.
  • DEX: A multi-chain, cross-chain decentralized exchange aggregator of 300+ other DEXs and approximately 15 bridges, with 200,000+ coins and more than 20 blockchains supported.
  • NFT Marketplace: A multi-chain, zero-fee NFT marketplace that gives users access to NFT listings across seven top-tier marketplaces including OpenSea, MagicEden, LooksRare and Blur.
  • Web3 DeFi: A powerful DeFi platform that supports earning and staking on about 70 protocols across more than 10 chains.

OKX partners with a number of the world’s top brands and athletes, including English Premier League champions Manchester City F.C., McLaren Formula 1, The Tribeca Festival, Olympian Scotty James, and F1 driver Daniel Ricciardo.

As a leader building innovative technology products, OKX believes in challenging the status quo. The company recently launched a global brand campaign entitled, The System Needs a Rewrite, which advocates for a new paradigm led by Web3 self-managed technology.

To learn more about OKX, download our app or visit: okx.com

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Blockchain Press Releases

Bitget Wallet now supports the Blast Mainnet, pioneering full ecosystem support as a Web3 wallet

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VICTORIA, Seychelles, March 1, 2024 /PRNewswire/ — The globally leading Web3 trading wallet Bitget Wallet has now integrated support for the Blast Mainnet, making it the first all-in-one Web3 wallet for the Blast ecosystem. Users can effortlessly add and switch mainnets within the wallet with just one click, without the need for manual configuration. This integration enables users to manage, transfer, swap, and interact on one of the largest L2 launches in 2024.

Bitget Wallet has aggregated liquidity from mainstream DEXs within the Blast ecosystem, such as BlasterSwap and MonoSwap, into its Swap feature. This allows for mainnet token Swap transactions, providing users with convenient services for trading assets on the Blast blockchain.

During the Blast testnet phase, Bitget Wallet was among the first to offer support, unveiled a dedicated zone in its DApp page for Blast. This section featured over 40 elite projects from Blast’s Big Bang incentive program, enabling users to easily explore, interact, and potentially receive future airdrops in the Blast ecosystem. Following the launch of the Blast mainnet, Bitget Wallet plans to continue integrating popular projects from the Blast ecosystem, offering users extensive asset management features and a comprehensive ecosystem experience.

Bitget Wallet’s COO, Alvin Kan, highlights Blast as a Layer 2 solution with staking at its core, gaining market attention since launch. He says, “We’re committed to cutting-edge tech, lowering Web3 engagement barriers. Collaborating with quality mainnets like Blast, we aim to drive Web3 ecosystem growth.”

This week, Bitget Wallet engages with popular Blast ecosystem projects, exploring market traction, “Stake Layer 2” narrative, TVL enhancement strategies by staking and earning points, notable projects, and effective ways for users to participate in the Blast ecosystem upon mainnet launch. This provides users with valuable insights for meaningful ecosystem engagement.

Additionally, Bitget Wallet is organizing major events to support the Blast ecosystem, providing users with opportunities for discovering new assets.

About Bitget Wallet

Bitget Wallet stands as Asia’s largest and one of the world’s top non-custodial Web3 wallets, boasting over 19 million users globally. Featuring a comprehensive array of features including asset management, intelligent market data, swap functionality, launchpad, inscribing, DApp browsing, and more, Bitget Wallet promises users an unmatched multi-chain Web3 experience. Currently, Bitget Wallet supports over 100 blockchains, hundreds of EVM-compatible chains, and more than 250,000 cryptocurrencies. By aggregating liquidity across hundreds of leading DEXs and cross-chain bridges, Bitget Wallet is able to facilitate seamless and efficient trades on 40+ blockchains.

For more information, visit: Website | Twitter | Telegram | Discord

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Blockchain Press Releases

Cashback and Crypto: Bybit’s Monthly Bonanza

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DUBAI, UAE, March 1, 2024 /PRNewswire/ —Bybit, one of the world’s top three crypto exchanges by volume, now unveils March’s Fiat Cashback Splash for both fresh and seasoned users who make fiat deposits.

This effort celebrates both new and familiar faces within the Bybit fold. The “Fiat Cashback Splash” is part of Bybit’s pledge to be the world’s Crypto Ark, leading the way to the new financial system, and offering straightforward chances for anyone to get involved. Indeed, any crypto users, including newcomers, will be able to walk the crypto path with Bybit as a reliable ally.

“We aim to always offer more to our users, and the Fiat Cashback Splash is our latest move to improve their journey,” said Ben Zhou, Bybit’s co-founder and CEO. “The Fiat Cashback Splash is our way of saying thank you to our community, both old and new, for their trust and support.”

This event spans the first week of every month and any one of Bybit’s 20 million users who bring fiat to the table will see rewards. Newcomers putting down $100 through fiat or a single click buy will get up to $10 back on fees. Those already with Bybit, depositing $500 or more, will see $5 returned.

For the heavy hitters depositing over $5,000, Bybit adds a $30 Buy Crypto Coupon into the mix, widening the horizon for investment.

#Bybit / #TheCryptoArk

About Bybit

Bybit is a top-three cryptocurrency exchange by volume with 20 million users established in 2018. It offers a professional platform where crypto investors and traders can find an ultra-fast matching engine, 24/7 customer service, and multilingual community support. Bybit is a proud partner of Formula One’s reigning Constructors’ and Drivers’ champions: the Oracle Red Bull Racing team.

For more details about Bybit, please visit Bybit Press.
For media inquiries, please contact: [email protected]
For more information, please visit: https://www.bybit.com
For updates, please follow: Bybit’s Communities and Social Media

Discord | Facebook | Instagram | LinkedIn | Reddit | Telegram | TikTok | X | Youtube

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