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Blockchain Press Releases

Bridging the Gap: Storage & Distribution in the Hydrogen Value Chain, IDTechEx Report




BOSTON, Aug. 15, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — In recent years, interest and activity in the hydrogen sector have accelerated, driven by governments recognizing hydrogen’s role in the energy transition and companies worldwide capitalizing on emerging market opportunities through the supply of services, products, technologies, and projects. While much focus has been placed on the upstream development of low-carbon hydrogen production sites (both green and blue) and downstream advancements in fuel cell technologies and industrial use cases of hydrogen, the midstream infrastructure needed to store and transport hydrogen has often received less consideration.

The development of this critical link in the value chain is vital for ensuring the full potential of hydrogen as an industrial feedstock, fuel, and energy carrier, bridging the gap between production and consumption. A broad spectrum of solutions exists for hydrogen transportation and storage.

This article delves into the subject of hydrogen storage and distribution technologies, examining their use cases and highlighting recent commercial activities in this domain. For a more in-depth exploration of each technology and associated commercial activities, please refer to IDTechEx’s new market report, “Hydrogen Economy 2023-2033: Production, Storage, Distribution & Applications“.

The Need for Hydrogen Storage & Distribution

Despite its impressive gravimetric energy density, one of the main challenges with hydrogen is the complexity of its storage and transportation. This stems from its extremely low density at ambient conditions leading to low volumetric energy density. Consequently, significant compression (100 to 700 bar) or liquefaction at an extreme boiling point of -253°C is necessary to enhance its volumetric energy density for storing and transporting adequate amounts.

Although mature, incumbent compressed gas and cryogenic liquid storage methods have significant disadvantages. These methods are energy-intensive, diminishing the hydrogen’s net energy content. Compression consumes 10-30% of the original energy, while liquefaction can use up to 30-40%, with the added burden of requiring a separate liquefaction plant, entailing considerable capital investment. Such inefficiencies significantly hinder some applications, such as FCEV mobility and energy storage, by sharply lowering the overall energy efficiency. Safety risks with compressed gas storage and boil-off issues with liquid H2 storage lead to hydrogen loss, further exacerbating the challenges. Collectively, these factors make both domestic and international transport of hydrogen expensive and inefficient.

Globally, hydrogen pipelines do exist, totaling an estimated 5,000 km, but their reach is largely restricted to specific regions like parts of Texas and Louisiana around the Gulf Coast or areas in France, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany. Typically operated by industrial gas giants like Air Products, Linde, and Air Liquide, these pipelines serve industrial facilities such as refineries within a limited range of production sites. This confinement emphasizes the pressing need to expand pipeline networks to connect varying regions of production and consumption more widely.

Hydrogen Storage Options and Their Use Cases

Many solutions are available, but the optimal choice depends on storage size and application. Compressed gas and liquid hydrogen storage tanks will likely continue to serve stationary storage applications, such as hydrogen refueling stations. Liquid hydrogen spheres may be used to store large quantities at production sites and import/export terminals. Established players like Tenaris (compressed gas storage), Chart Industries (liquid H2 tanks), and McDermott CB&I (liquid H2 spherical vessels) already supply these well-commercialized solutions.

Compressed hydrogen tanks, especially Type III and IV composites are gaining traction in the FCEV market, as they are most suitable to store hydrogen on-board of a vehicle. Many FCEVs, such as the Hyundai Nexo and Toyota Mirai, use Type IV tanks storing hydrogen at 700 bar. Compressed storage is expected to persist in many FCEV segments, dominating light-duty ones. However, liquid hydrogen (LH2) tanks present the advantage of higher capacities, which could be beneficial for the heavy-duty segments. Hence, some companies, like Daimler Truck, are trialing the use of LH2.

Storage systems using metal hydrides show promise for stationary applications similar to existing compressed and liquid H2 systems. These systems, which operate at much lower pressures (10-50 bar) and use pressure cycling for adsorption/release, may be more suitable for hydrogen energy storage applications due to reduced energy consumption and, thus, improved round-trip efficiency. Companies like GKN Hydrogen are progressing towards commercialization, having demonstrated their systems in off-grid energy storage and residential combined heat and power (CHP). Many more companies are developing systems based on metal hydrides.

Underground hydrogen storage, utilizing reservoirs like salt caverns, builds on established natural gas storage methods. Integration of such facilities into hydrogen pipeline networks is planned by operators like Uniper and Gasunie in the coming years. Underground storage is expected to play a key role in seasonal hydrogen storage to supply sectors in times of lower demand, like natural gas storage. Underground facilities may also be used by industrial projects as a buffer reserve of hydrogen – HYBRIT, a sustainable steelmaking project in Sweden, is testing such a concept using a lined rock cavern (LRC). However, regulation and long project development times remain key challenges for this storage type.

Hydrogen Distribution Options and Their Use Cases

Currently, compressed and liquid hydrogen trailers supply smaller scale applications like refueling stations or pilot projects. This trend is likely to continue as large-scale transportation where continuous hydrogen supplies are needed may not be viable with these methods. Many types of vessels could be used in terms of compressed gas transport, from Type I to IV, developed by companies like Hexagon Purus­. Other companies, such as LIFTE H2, are using trailer concepts to develop mobile refuelers, which can compensate for the lack of a hydrogen refueling station.

Larger scale and longer-distance transport will necessitate pipelines, either running directly from production to end-use sites or feeding into pipeline networks. New construction is planned, with some projects like the HyNet North West Hydrogen Pipeline already underway. Repurposing natural gas pipelines is a possibility but requires extensive simulation, testing, and risk evaluation to identify suitable pipelines. The European Hydrogen Backbone initiative is a leading initiative in terms of developing a large-scale pipeline network, with over 30 operators participating – many of the pipelines that will be used are planned to be repurposed from existing networks. Blending hydrogen into natural gas is also a popular topic as it is a way of partially decarbonizing the heating and power sector, with projects like HyDeploy proving a blend of 20 vol% being safe in existing pipelines. However, a higher percentage of hydrogen blends will require the modification of many appliances and equipment in the residential and industrial sectors.

International long-distance transport may involve liquid hydrogen or conversion to hydrogen carriers like ammonia or LOHC. Liquid hydrogen transport was demonstrated by the Suiso Frontier vessel (built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries) in the HESC project, transporting hydrogen from Australia to Japan. However, this pathway may be less viable compared to carriers due to the technical and commercial difficulties of dealing with liquid hydrogen.

The advantage of using hydrogen carriers is the utilization of existing transport routes and vessels, albeit requiring additional processing facilities. Companies like Chiyoda Corporation and Hydrogenious LOHC Technologies are on the path of commercializing their LOHC solutions. An ammonia receiving terminal is also planned at the Port of Rotterdam as a collaboration between Royal Vopak, Gasunie, and HES International. Many more companies globally are also seeing ammonia as the more viable option.

Future Directions & Further Insights

The global embrace of hydrogen storage and distribution technologies will expand as production and end-use sites increase. This represents an opportunity for product supply, project development, and R&D to innovate and refine existing methods. IDTechEx projects the global low-carbon hydrogen production market to reach US$130 billion by 2033, expecting substantial growth in transport and storage solutions. The new “Hydrogen Economy 2023-2033: Production, Storage, Distribution & Applications” report offers an exhaustive overview of the value chain, including technological analyses, comparisons, commercial activities, innovations, and market trends.

To find out more about this IDTechEx report, including downloadable sample pages, please visit

About IDTechEx

IDTechEx guides your strategic business decisions through its Research, Subscription and Consultancy products, helping you profit from emerging technologies. For more information, contact [email protected] or visit

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Media Contact:

Lucy Rogers
Sales and Marketing Administrator
[email protected]
+44(0)1223 812300

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Blockchain Press Releases

Friend.Tech and Base Anti-Phishing Boosted By CoolWallet’s Web3 SmartScan



TAIPEI, Oct. 2, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — Base’s new killer DApp, the decentralized social network, is breaking transaction records with record adoption, but is being targeted by hackers and scammers through phishing attacks.To raise awareness of the importance of hardware wallet protection and promote its powerful Web3 SmartScan transaction screener, CoolWallet has launched a Web3 Guardian competition.

Coinbase’s new Ethereum layer-2 chain, Base, has become a favorite for DApp developers and early investors due to its outstanding performance and the innovative projects it attracts. One DApp in particular, the decentralized social media platform, has driven the bulk of its growth in recent weeks. helping Base repeatedly reach new transaction volume highs despite difficult market conditions.’s rapid rise has garnered widespread attention- according to the latest data, the daily active user (DAU) count of have surpassed the million mark, with its transaction volume consistently hitting new records and its total value locked (TVL) now surpassing $35 million.

However, with any crypto trends comes new security risks, in this case a familiar foe, phishing attacks. This type of social engineering attacks dominate crypto thefts, which by June 2023 had already hit the $650 million mark across the Web3 sector. This month alone has already seen successful attacks targeting high-profile victims Mark Cuban and Vitalik Buterin and stealing millions in the process.

As a result, Base and users are urged to use a reputable hardware wallet to secure their tech digital assets by protecting their private keys and screening transactions.

In response, hardware wallet maker CoolWallet, which natively supports the Base ecosystem, has launched an anti-phishing campaign titled  Web3 Guardian Competition to create awareness and promote its unique defense capabilities such as CoolWallet SmartScan, which proactively screens all Web3 transactions and flags malicious behavior or smart contract vulnerabilities before users are exploited.

How works has garnered a cult following among crypto enthusiasts as one of the first decentralized social networks to be built on the Base blockchain. It’s powered by blockchain and smart contracts, where users must buy “shares” of another person in order to chat with them. Its tagline is “Your network is your net worth”.

To use, users must first sign up with their Twitter (X) account, create a profile and then start trading shares of other users who have also signed up. A user’s share price is determined by factors like their popularity, reputation, and overall demand.

Buying shares of another user gives you access to them, allowing you to message them directly and chat. The more shares you buy, the higher a priority your messages will be. recommends hardware wallet protection

With crypto phishing attacks claiming even high-profile victims such as Vitalik Buterin and Mark Cuban as victims in recent weeks, it’s no surprise that also places great emphasis on asset security.

It therefore recommends that users utilize a hardware wallet for enhanced protection against threats like phishing sites. Storing assets offline makes them less accessible to online hackers, thus offering greater security.

CoolWallet’s SmartScan Flags Web3 Phishing Threats

CoolWallet (established in 2014) has since the launch of its CoolWallet Pro flagship model in 2021 pivoted strongly to securing Web3 assets, which requires users to interact with DeFi protocols that could potentially drain their accounts if they authorize the wrong transaction.

CoolWallet Pro in particular makes for an ideal hardware wallet as it’s one of the first cold wallets to support the Base network, and boasts several elite security features, such as:

  • an EAL6+ secure element
  • biometric verification (both on phone and device)
  • tamper proof and waterproof design

Importantly, its CoolWallet App comes with real-time Web3 transaction analysis scanning called Web3 SmartScan.

While cold storage is as safe as can be, the biggest vulnerability remains human error or a lapse in judgment, where the user is tricked into authorizing a bad transaction or revealing their recovery seed or private key to a bad actor.

CoolWallet’s SmartScan, available on its CoolWallet App, provides Web3-native protection against phishing attempts. It automatically screens transactions and flags attempted phishing, suspicious transactions and smart contract vulnerabilities. This makes using cold storage even safer to use, and elevates CoolWallet above other hardware wallet brands.

Web3 Guardian Competition- Secure Your Crypto for the Next Bull Run!

To promote Web3 asset protection among blockchain users and help them safeguard their crypto portfolio with SmartScan until the next bull run, CoolWallet is launching a global new competition aimed at enhancing user security awareness with generous rewards to participating users.

For more details, please visit their website’s event page or X (Twitter) account

About Base:

Base is a secure, low-cost, builder-friendly Ethereum L2 built to bring the next billion users on chain.

About is an emerging DApp focused on social interactions and cryptographic asset management. It provides users with a secure and efficient blockchain platform. The platform currently operates on the Base chain and is continuously expanding its features and user base.

About CoolWallet

CoolWallet is a pioneering Web3 hardware wallet brand established in 2014 by CoolBitX that offers users the comfort of convenient and fully portable cold storage of all digital assets, including DeFi and NFT crypto assets.

CoolWallet Pro is a flagship Web3 hardware wallet that boasts a wafer-thin smart card form factor, an EAL6+ secure element, military-grade Bluetooth encryption, and a tamper proof and water-resistant exterior, while its custom CoolWallet App offers users a choice of DeFi marketplaces, DApp support and real-time transaction screening.

CONTACT: Domo Zhuang, [email protected]

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Blockchain Press Releases

Webb Unveils Tangle Network Testnet, Pioneering the Future of Private, Decentralized Applications



NEW YORK, Sept. 29, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — Today, Webb announced the launch of its much-anticipated Tangle Network Testnet, setting the stage for a new era of private and decentralized applications.

About Webb

Led by founder Drew Stone, Webb is the premier cross-chain zero-knowledge messaging layer, committed to revolutionizing blockchain privacy. Backed by industry giants like Polychain, Lemniscap, and Commonwealth Labs, Webb introduces a suite of tools aimed at advancing zero-knowledge (ZK) and multi-party computation (MPC) applications across multiple blockchains.

The Challenge and Our Solution

Blockchain networks today face significant hurdles: limited interoperability, scaling difficulties, centralized control, and privacy concerns. Webb’s Tangle Network, built on the powerful Substrate framework, is designed to tackle these challenges by offering a next-generation blockchain platform.

Why Tangle Network?

Our vision is to make it easier for developers to create secure, private zero-knowledge (ZK) and multi-party computation (MPC)-based decentralized applications. Tangle Network simplifies:

  • Proof Generation: Delegate computational tasks to our validators.
  • Trusted Setups: Tangle Network manages complex ceremonies for you.
  • Secure Signing: Utilize our threshold signing for cross-chain operations.

By removing these barriers, we massively improve the time to launch for ZK and MPC-based decentralized applications.

Noteworthy Features

  • Unparalleled speed, security, and scalability via Substrate.
  • Decentralized control through Distributed Key Generation (DKG).
  • Advanced protocols for zero-knowledge applications.
  • Cross-chain compatibility with IBC and XCM.
  • Easy migration of existing apps through Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) support.
  • Smooth, forkless upgrades.

What’s Next?

The Testnet launch kicks off with an in-depth whitepaper, followed by a series of engagement events during the testnet phase. Our mainnet is scheduled for a Q1/Q2 2024 launch, featuring hackathons, workshops, and a targeted grant program to accelerate the adoption of privacy-focused applications.

Testnet Quick Links

Get Involved

  • Developers: Start building on Tangle today. Learn More
  • Validators and Relayers: Help secure and maintain the network. Learn More
  • Join the Community: Follow us on Twitter or join our Discord.

Contact Us
For media inquiries, partnerships, or more information, email us at [email protected] 

Visit our website

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Blockchain Press Releases

ChainUp Celebrates 6th Anniversary, Charting Blockchain Innovations beyond Digital Assets



SINGAPORE, Sept. 29, 2023 /PRNewswire/ — ChainUp, a Singapore-based trailblazer and global leader in the blockchain industry, marked its sixth anniversary celebration with more than 500 business partners at Ce La Vi Singapore. During the celebration, ChainUp Founder and CEO, Sailor Zhong reflected on the journey, “Six years in the blockchain industry showcases our resilience, innovation, and forward-looking approach. As we look to the future, we are committed to shaping a digital asset environment that is reliable, transparent, and unparalleled. ChainUp aims to champion blockchain solutions beyond the applications of digital assets and bridge the gap between digital asset markets and traditional finance (TradFi) to increase effectiveness and market efficiency.”

The DEX Renaissance
As decentralized finance (DeFi) comes into prominence and focused on returning control to users, one of the sectors impacted by DeFi are the exchanges where cryptocurrencies are traded. Data from CoinMarketCap reveals that trading volumes on Decentralized exchanges (DEX) reached $1.2 trillion in 2022, indicating a 340% YoY growth. However, factors such as poor user experience impeded the rate of adoption of DEX. Recognizing this trend, ChainUp has updated its white-labeled DEX solution, incorporating advanced features, strengthening its security, improving its liquidity and aims to provide a decentralized trading experience that is on par with commonly-used centralized exchanges (CEX).

Bridging TradFi and Digital Assets Market
The traditional financial sector has been progressing very cautiously on digital assets. As more institutions lean into RWA tokenization, they unlock unparalleled liquidity in a borderless trading environment. Amidst this evolution, ChainUp’s RWA solutions emerge as an industry pioneer, offering robust tokenization protocols, seamless integration, and enhanced security, bridging the gap between TradFi and the digital future with unmatched finesse.

Minimizing Risk and Maximizing Security
ChainUp’s MPC Wallet revolutionizes crypto security by integrating MPC technology with advanced hardware isolation, ensuring utmost safety and encryption on data. The wallet offers dynamic key-refreshing mechanisms, chain-agnostic compatibility, and eliminates single-point vulnerabilities. With efficient multi-address management and 24/7 expert support, users enjoy full asset control, scalability, and cost-efficiency, all under one roof.

Compliance: The Guiding Principle
Navigating global regulations in the blockchain sector can be complex. ChainUp’s KYT subsidiary, Trustformer, offers peace of mind for enterprises tackling compliance-related challenges.  ChainUp’s advanced solutions in Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Counter-Terrorist Financing (CFT) show their commitment to a more secure blockchain environment.

For detailed insights into ChainUp’s innovative solutions, please visit:

About ChainUp
Headquartered in Singapore, ChainUp is a global leading end-to-end blockchain technology solutions provider covering infrastructure development and ecosystem support. Built on the mission to empower businesses through blockchain technology, ChainUp’s innovative and all-around compliant solutions include digital asset exchange, KYT, NFT trading, wallet, liquidity, Web3.0 infrastructure, digital asset custody, security token offerings and more. Established in 2017, ChainUp has offices around the world, serving more than 1,000 clients in 30 countries, reaching over 60 million end-users.

CONTACT: Jacelynn Pang, [email protected] 

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